Static Testing vs Dynamic Testing

The goal of software testing services is to find bugs in the program and ensure that it works as intended before the release to the public. It involves running software/system elements through an evaluation process, either manually or automatically, to determine the value of one or more attributes of interest. The purpose of software testing is to expose inconsistencies, holes, and omissions in the specifications. Putting it clearly, software testing is the act of ensuring that the program being tested is correct.

In this article, we focus on two software testing methods contrasting each other in terms of techniques. Let’s begin the debate of static testing vs dynamic testing.

1. What is Static Testing?

Static testing is also known as non-execution testing or verification testing. In contrast to dynamic testing, static testing does not involve running the code. You can use your hands or a machine to complete this task. Requirement files, architectural records, and code are all examined, and feedback is added to the corresponding task document. The program is put through its paces in a non-runtime environment for the purpose of security testing when it is not actively being used. 

The aim of static testing is to identify any bugs, security exploits, or harmful code in the codebase using static analysis. It is performed at an initial stage of the development life cycle. You can perform structural and statement coverage testing under static testing. Papers including requirements documents, architectural files, source code, test plans, test scripts, test cases, and website content can all be subjected to static testing.

2. What is Dynamic Testing?

Dynamic testing is also known as execution testing or validation testing. The program or an algorithm runs during dynamic testing. The efficiency, memory use, and CPU load of the system as a whole are all evaluated. To sum it up easily, that’s why it’s called “Dynamic.”

The primary goal of dynamic testing is to verify that the software delivers as promised, meeting all of the specified needs of the organization. Sometimes referred to as a validation test or execution technique.

In dynamic testing, once the program is run and its results are compared to the desired result. Both black and white box dynamic testing is conducted at all testing stages. It includes integration testing, system testing, unit testing, etc.

Further Reading on:

What are the Types of Software Testing?

3. Static Testing Techniques

Static Testing Techniques

Static testing methods done in two different ways.

3.1 Review

Human inspections or assessment meetings detect the possible flaws in the system. All the teammates who are there in the project’s development attend these sessions regularly.

You can use SRS (System Requirements Specifications) papers to categorize the differences.

Each review is then subdivided into following parts.

1. Informal Reviews

Initial, non-formal reviews are conducted with the SRS paper’s originator and all other teammates present. Everyone can express their opinions on the report’s flaws. Defects can then be caught in their infancy phases.

2. Walkthroughs

Experts and knowledgeable individuals conduct walkthrough inspections. The purpose of this is to eliminate the possibility of any bugs or flaws being overlooked.

3. Technical/peer review

Third, there is technical/peer review, in which coworkers evaluate each other’s documents for faults and then work together to remedy them.

4. Inspections

Inspection is the examination of a document by a higher entity.

3.2 Static Analysis

This is an alternative way of doing static tests. Here, programmers’ own programs are evaluated for quality control purposes. The static analysis is carried out with the use of several instruments. CheckStyle, SourceMeter, and Soot are just a few examples.

You can break down static analysis even further by looking at Data Flow, Control Flow, and Cyclomatic Complexity.

  • It is well known that “Data Flow” and “Stream Processing” go hand in hand.
  • Second, Control Flow determines how orders and instructions are carried out in a program.
  • The difficulty of a piece of code may be quantified using the term “cyclomatic complexity.” The range of possible outcomes in the software’s control flow graph is inversely related to this.

4. Dynamic Testing Techniques

Dynamic Testing Techniques

There are two approaches to conduct dynamic testing of a software or system.

  1. White Box Testing
  2. Black Box Testing

4.1 White Box Testing

In white box testing, the examiner and the software are both kept in the loop at all times. Because of this, the analyst is well versed in the system’s inner workings and codes. The code is examined thoroughly for bugs detection.

Since they have a better knowledge of the system’s structure and inner workings, programmers do white box testing.

One further part of white box testing is data flow/control testing. As was said above, the purpose of data flow testing is to ensure that the intended pathways through the program are being followed.

Upon completion of white box testing, the system is delivered to the analysts for black box testing.

4.2 Black Box Testing

In black box testing, analysts and test teams do not have access to the app’s source code or infrastructure. The purpose is to test the software’s performance using any data source. They make sure that the program is functioning properly and generating the desired results. One can do black-box testing without any previous knowledge of computer programming. It is only appropriate for the tester to be informed of the system’s concerns and parameters.

Further subcategories of Black Box testing are:

  1. Functional Testing
  2. Non-functional Testing

1. Functional Testing

When testing a software’s functionality, testers make sure it lives up to its criteria. Each part is put through its paces, and the whole system is put to the test to ensure it functions as intended. The results are validated against the inputs. Unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and user acceptance testing are all components of functional testing.

2. Non-Functional Testing

In non-functional testing, you can examine the metrics including load, turnaround time, and efficiency. The purpose is to see if the software is living up to the user’s hopes and dreams. Load testing, performance testing, security testing, compatibility testing, etc. all fall under the umbrella of non-functional testing.

5. Difference between Static Testing and Dynamic Testing:

Let’s take a look into the differences between static testing vs dynamic testing techniques:

Static TestingDynamic Testing
Static testing is known as verification testing.Dynamic testing is known as validation testing.
Static testing is a type of white box testing, which is performed early in the software development life cycle.In contrast, dynamic testing is performed later in the software development lifecycle.
More statements are tested in less time during static testing in contrast to dynamic testing.
Since dynamic testing only checks a fraction of the code, there is a shorter statement phase.
It is performed before code deployment.
It is performed after the code deployment.
At the stage of the verification process, this is carried out.
It is performed during the validation stage.
No code is actually run during these tests.
This kind of action is carried out by the execution of code.
Code and documentation may be evaluated with static testing.
Software inefficiencies can be revealed through dynamic testing.
Static testing techniques involve making  checklists for the testing process.
Dynamic testing involves running test cases for the testing process.
Static testing procedures consist of things like walkthroughs and code reviews.
Dynamic testing consists of both functional and nonfunctional testing, as stated earlier.

6. Conclusion

Within the context of the software development process, both static and dynamic testing play an essential role. The organization must deliberate about which of these software testing strategies to employ on the software product. To maximize the advantages of testing and pick the best tools for the job, it’s important to have a firm grasp of the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches.

In a nutshell, in this article, we presented every aspect of both static testing vs dynamic testing to you so you know the best for you and your upcoming ventures. In the case of getting your hands on the best, reach out to us!

Itesh Sharma

Itesh Sharma is core member of Sales Department at TatvaSoft. He has got more than 6 years of experience in handling the task related to Customer Management and Project Management. Apart from his profession he also has keen interest in sharing the insight on different methodologies of software development.


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