Test Automation Framework: Types and Examples

1. What is a Test Automation Framework?

The test automation framework is a compilation of the process and tools that work together to assist automated testing approaches for any application. This process is a combination of various functions, test data, libraries, and reusable modules.

This framework not only allows the code to be reused across scenarios but also allows the software testing company to write the test script in a consistent format. As a result, the test automation framework takes care of everything.

2. Test Automation Advantages and Disadvantages:

When performed appropriately, test automation can provide numerous benefits to the project and organization. However, there are some drawbacks to test automation that we should be concerned about.

2.1 Advantages:-

1. Fast Execution :

Auto testers are the Fast and Furious squad in the testing business. When we execute them, however, they are generally fast and can go through various steps much faster than a human. Agility, or the capacity to multitask at a superhuman level, follows speed. In terms of test execution, tools outperform human users (Software Testers). Two important tasks are involved in software testing: a. Test Design (which takes more time than manual testing) and b. Test Execution (which takes less time than manual testing). 

Testing tools can run tests (single or series of tests) faster than human users (Testers).  Although test design is a one-time activity, we must run tests multiple times to save time.

2. Automated Regression Testing :

Regression testing verifies that changes in code do not have an adverse effect on the solution’s previously developed functionality. Regression testing also ensures that the app functions properly with fixed bugs, new features, and enhancements. Because it is time-consuming and repetitive, it may be more efficient to use automation while performing it. Regression testing can be automated, freeing up QA engineers to write test cases for new features or other crucial duties.

3. The Development Team Can contribute:

Typically, automated checks are written in the same language as the application under test. As a result, the responsibility for writing, maintaining, and executing tests becomes shared. Testers are not the only members of the development team that can offer their expertise.

4. Cost Savings:

If implemented correctly, automated tests can significantly reduce testing costs. And it is said by the experts that automated tests are less expensive than manual tests in the long term. It will demand a huge initial investment but that will pay off in the long run.

2.2 Disadvantages:-

1. Expensive : 

Money, like time, is a cost to the business. Furthermore, a significant upfront investment is required to properly incorporate test automation. These cost constraints of automation testing do not only apply to the purchase of the necessary tools and resources; there is also a labor cost associated with implementing these changes. Specialized automated software testing tools are costly. Furthermore, hiring automated QA engineers is also pricey in comparison to hiring manual QA engineers.

2. Continuous Maintenance :

Every time you upgrade your software application, your automated tests must be able to generate precise findings. This frequently necessitates going over all of your automated test scripts and making any necessary changes. Failure to do so can frequently result in false results, leaving your product vulnerable to bugs and attacks. On the other hand, doing so can cost the QA process valuable time. When conditions change, the program’s coding must be modified and re-tested to ensure it is still functioning properly. This is an expensive procedure.

3. Inability to Test UX:

Although test automation can outperform a human tester, it cannot think like one. User experience testing must therefore always be done by hand. The accuracy of the user interface’s appearance, usability, and consistency simply cannot be detected by machines. An automated test case, for instance, might yield flawless findings, yet a user testing a product’s dashboard might find the platform confusing or underwhelming in terms of functionality.

3. Types of Automated Testing Frameworks:-

3.1 Linear Automation Framework

The Linear test automation framework, often known as “Record & Playback,” is the most basic of all Testing Automation Frameworks.

Testers are not required to generate functions or write code in this framework. Additionally, the steps are always completed linearly. During this process, the tester takes notes on all navigational choices, user input, and checkpoints before automatically replaying the script to conduct the test. This framework can be used without any test automation experience because there is no requirement for bespoke code.


  • It generates test scripts faster without planning much or investing much time.
  • Only basic knowledge of coding works here, you’re not required to have automation expertise.
  • It provides one of the easiest ways to learn the features of a testing tool.
  • Improved test efficiency.
  • Ease of scripting, understandability, process definition, modularity, and much more.


  • The usage of scripts is limited.
  • Maintenance can be complex.
  • You cannot reuse the test cases.
  • A lot of effort is required to perform even a small change.
  • It doesn’t allow you to run multiple datasets at once.

Example of Linear Automation Framework –

If it is a Train Ticket Booking App and you are logging into it, check if the application has loaded properly after the log-in. Let’s take a look at how every tester simplifies the records and adds steps for validation.

SystemUtil.Run "trainTicketBooking.exe","","","open"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("UserName").Set "Tatva"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password").Set "12345678"
'Check Train Ticket Booking Window has loaded after successful log-on
Window("Train Ticket Booking").Check CheckPoint("Train Ticket Booking")

3.2 Modular Based Testing Framework

A modular or module based testing framework necessitates that testers divide the application into separate testing categories such as functions, units, sections, and so on. Tests are given in isolation to each class. The idea of abstraction is the foundation of this system. To test the software, separate test scripts are made based on the modules. A test script is generated for each module after the program has been broken down into its parts, and these scripts are then integrated to create larger tests in a hierarchical form. These larger groups of tests in a modular-based testing framework represent different test cases.

A major tactic for utilizing the modular structure is to create an abstraction layer so that modifications made to particular portions do not impact the main module.


  • It allows you to change the script only for a particular module.
  • The modular-based testing framework addresses a higher level of modularization that helps you to maintain costs.
  • The framework is highly scalable.
  • The modular division of scripts available in this framework leads to easier maintenance and provides the scalability to independently write test scripts.
  • You can change any part of the application without affecting any other test script of the app.


  • When you implement the test scripts for all the modules separately, you need to first embed the test data into the test scripts. For this, you need manipulations made in the test scripts.

3.3 Library Architecture Testing Framework

Structured scripting or Functional decomposition are other names for it. In this automated testing framework, test scripts are initially recorded using the “Record & Playback” approach. The library architecture framework for automated testing provides some more benefits on top of the modular structure. It finds related tasks within the scripts and groups them according to function, rather than breaking the application under test into the various scripts that must be run. These functions are utilized by the primary test script, Driver, in a variety of ways to produce test cases. This enables the application to be ultimately divided into constituent parts by shared goals. Additionally, these functions are kept in a library that multiple test scripts can use whenever necessary.


  • It requires a high level of modularization for cost-efficient maintenance and scalability.
  • Allows you to reuse code in structured scripting.
  • You can easily maintain your script.
  • It provides less expensive automation scripts.
  • You can create all the required functions that can be efficiently used in the framework and address a great degree of reusability.


  • You need technical expertise to write Scripts while you’re working with this framework.
  • As new libraries are introduced, you might find this framework a bit complex to work with.
  • You need to invest more time in planning and preparing test scripts
  • Hard-coded test data within the scripts.
  • When you modify anything in the test data, you must change the same in the test script as well which can be time-consuming.

Example of Library Architecture Testing Automation –

Function for logging into the Train Ticket Booking application looks like.

Function Login()
SystemUtil.Run "trainTicketBooking.exe","","","open"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("UserName").Set "Tatva"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password").Set "12345678"
End Function

3.4 Data-Driven Framework

By using a data-driven framework, the test data and script logic are separated, with the test data being kept outside of the test scripts while test case logic is contained within them. The test script’s variables are loaded with test data that has been read from external files. In these cases, testers frequently can’t rely solely on the data encoded in the script. With the help of this framework, testers will be able to store and pass various test script parameters from a variety of data sources, including text files, excel spreadsheets, ODBC repositories, SQL tables, etc.

In this approach, all test cases using various types of data can be executed by a single driver script. This driver script includes navigation throughout the application, handling both reading data files and logging test status data.


  • Any modifications applied to the test data matrix will not affect the test script code.
  • Enhanced flexibility and maintainability.
  • You can execute multiple test scenarios by varying the test data that are available in the External data file.
  • It allows you to execute a variety of test cases using multiple sets of data.
  • You can modify the test data values just by executing the test scenario.


  • You need to invest a significant amount of time to plan and prepare test data and test scripts.
  • Data validation can be a time-consuming task as the amount of data is large.
  • You must have a high level of technical skills to develop test scripts.
  • Software testers must learn a completely new scripting language.

Example Data-Driven Framework –

When a tester wants to create a login script for the Train Ticket Booking app, there are two steps. The first one is to create a test data file which can be either CSV or Excel. Then develop the test script and make test data source references, for which the code is as follows – 

SystemUtil.Run "trainTicketBooking.exe","","","open"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("UserName").Set DataTable("UserName", dataSheet)
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password").Set DataTable("Password", dataSheet)
'Check Train Ticket Booking Window has loaded
Window("Train Ticket Booking").Check CheckPoint("Train Ticket Booking")
//"dataSheet" is the default excel data sheet.

3.5 Keyword-Driven Testing Framework

In the application-independent framework known as “Keyword Driven Testing,” the activities to be performed on the application under test are described using data tables and keywords. Tests can be written with or without the application. The keyword-driven test automation framework for web-based applications can be thought of as an extension of the data-driven testing framework.

Each application function that needs to be tested is listed in a table with the procedure that needs to be followed for every test that is required to be run in a keyword-driven framework. This strategy separates keywords from the automated testing tool being used to perform the tests by maintaining them in an external data table. The many activities of a script are denoted by keywords.


  • It allows you to reuse your code.
  • You can design your tests with or without AUT.
  • The user doesn’t need scripting knowledge only the basics are required.
  • It is a test tool independent.
  • You can use a single keyword across multiple test scripts.


  • In the beginning, the investment can be pretty high but this can only be helpful if the app is considerably large.
  • You need to maintain the test scripts for a few days.
  • Developers must have high automation expertise to create the keyword-driven framework.
  • Users should be aware of the keyword creation mechanism if they want to reap the benefits offered by the particular framework.
  • As the framework becomes complex, it requires more keywords to be introduced.

Example of Keyword-Driven Testing Framework –

In a keyword-driven testing framework, the testers have to create a data table that contains the Action to be performed and their corresponding arguments on the GUI Objects. And then the code is written in the form of Component Functions, which looks like below –

Function main()
  Call ConnectTable(Table Name) {
    while (Call TableParser() != -1) 
      Pass values according to COMPONENT functions. Like Set(Object Name, Argument) ex.Set(UserName, Tatva).
  Call CloseConnection()

3.6 Hybrid Test Automation Framework

Automated testing frameworks have begun to integrate and overlap with one another, as is the case with the majority of testing procedures today. Other types of testing automation frameworks are combined into a hybrid framework. It has been built using a variety of end-to-end testing methodologies. As the name implies, this framework combines one or more of the automation frameworks mentioned above, utilizing their advantages while attempting to minimize their disadvantages. The testing process for these applications must be unique because each application is unique. A hybrid framework also enables testers to be more flexible and agile to produce better test results.

Most test automation frameworks develop into QA automation frameworks over time and across numerous projects. The majority of industries combine the Function decomposition method with the Keyword Framework. To achieve the best test results, a hybrid testing framework can be more easily modified.


  • It allows you to reuse code.
  • Higher maintenance and reduce the cost of script maintenance.
  • You can automate any application using this framework.
  • It helps developers to write clean and adaptable code.
  • It allows you to reap the benefits of both data-driven framework and keyword-driven framework.


  • You must have a clear understanding of combining various frameworks.
  • Tests are entirely scrip-based so you need to invest more effort in automation.

Example of Hybrid Test Automation Framework –

Here, the testers can create Modular scripts using Actions in QTP, which looks like – 

SystemUtil.Run "trainTicketBooking.exe","","","open"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("UserName").Set "Tatva"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password").Set "12345678"
'End of Script

4. Example Of Test Automation Frameworks:-

The increasing demand for test automation answers why there are so many automation testing frameworks available in the market. Here I have listed the most valued frameworks currently getting used.

4.1 Selenium:


Selenium is a well-known open-source, mechanized, and best-test computerization system. It has made a title for itself within the community after a long time, and all web application engineers ought to be mindful of it. It was initially known as JavaScript TestRunner, some time recently being renamed Selenium in 2004. Be that as it may, Selenium may be a collection of tools that each cater to diverse Selenium computerization testing needs. This instructional exercise will educate you about everything you would like to know about Selenium and the different sorts of Selenium mechanization testing tools.

Know more about Selenium Testing


  • Portable: With Selenium, you can automate your tests on  Chrome, Firefox, IE, Microsoft Edge, Opera, Safari, and more.
  • Record and Replay: Selenium features a record and replay include that makes a difference in computerization test creation without really learning the programming languages.
  • Large language support: Selenium has a colossal programming dialect back with all the major programming dialects like Java, C#, Python, JavaScript, Ruby, PHP, etc secured beneath the umbrella.
  • WebDriver support: Selenium underpins the WebDriver API that makes a difference in Parallel and cross-browser executions to decrease execution time and increment test coverage

GitHub Score:

The GitHub Stars of Selenium is 25.4k, the watchings are 1.3k, and the forks are 7.3k.

4.2 Robot Framework:

Robot Framework

Robot System is a keyword-driven test automation system, written in Python. It is numbered among the leading test automation systems that are open-source and utilized for  Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and test mechanization. Discharged, beginning in 2008, the Robot framework community and client base have developed significantly. The system is composed in Python and can be utilized with other devices to make an effective test mechanization solution. It engages analyzers to computerize and oversee complex workflow scripts effectively.


  • Library bolster: The Robot system underpins libraries composed in Python or Java. Both of these dialects are greatly prevalent within the community. 
  • Easy to compose: The browser testing system employs English words or human-readable watchwords that make the test composing preparation easy.
  • Lucid chain of command: The system takes after a clear chain of command of test suites and settled tests. Information is characterized by records that contain test suites, and a registry containing records makes a settled test suite. 
  • Detailed reporting: The reports within the Robot system are point by point and give logs to analyze what went wrong.

GitHub Score:

The GitHub Stars of Robot Framework is 62, the watchings are 20, and the forks are 71.

4.3 Appium:


Another legend within the list of best systems for computerization testing is Appium. Like Selenium, Appium is additionally an open-source computerization testing device, but for portable applications. Utilizing portable JSON wire convention, Appium permits clients to compose computerized UI tests for local, web-based, and crossover versatile applications on both Android and iOS.

Features of Appium:

  • Greatly adaptable: Appium point, as they cite, is to test any portable application in any programming dialect and any test system with full access to the back-end APIs. 
  • Enhances code reusability: Appium could be a cross-platform mechanization system which implies the same API can be utilized to run tests on different platforms/operating frameworks. Consequently, it upgrades code reusability. 
  • Eliminates recompilation: An analyzer must not recompile the versatile application each time they run the computerization tests.

GitHub Score:

The GitHub Stars of Appium is 15.8k, the watchings are 894, and the forks are 5.8k. 

5. An Effective Strategy to Automate the Software Testing:-

The success of the automated software testing process is continuously reliant on a cost-effective test automation plan with a focus on results. When done correctly, this method offers several advantages. A few of the benefits incorporate expanded test scope, expanded test unwavering quality, speedier time-to-market, and faster ROI. Having a great test automation strategy will offer assistance to businesses to keep pace with the advertisement and maintain a strategic distance from any major innovation failures. To construct a great test automation strategy you wish to be recognizable with the test automation life cycle.

Here are some of the processes listed below, to take care of while building the strategy.

5.1 Identify The Test Automation Goals:

The first step is to identify the automation testing objectives and goals. The objectives can be speedier test execution, moved forward test comes about, made strides precision, diminished relapse time, taking a toll on investment funds, etc.

5.2 Choose The Ideal Group of Team Members:

Once the automation objectives are recognized, a committed automation team is ideal to have the manual testing group utilize automation testing tools. The groups with great hands-on encounters to handle assignments such as composing the test scripts, running the tests, checking the test disappointments, upgrading the tests, composing relapse tests, etc would be a great put to start.

5.3 Choose a Test Automation Framework :

When it comes to working on test automation frameworks, there are specific guidelines that need to be followed by the engineers to create and execute test cases efficiently. You must choose the test automation framework as per the project’s requirements. It comes with a wide range of options, for instance, a framework for automating linear tests, data-driven systems, keyword-driven systems, etc.

5.4 Choose The Right Testing Tool:

While selecting the right tool is essential, recognizing the right instrument for your project is equally crucial. When selecting a testing tool, it is important to ensure that it is compatible with the project’s innovation stack, test environment, browser, operating system, mobile/desktop/web app, etc. The correct approach is to get it that a device cannot entirely automate everything but make the whole testing handle simpler and quicker. Indeed more imperative is to have a gifted group to utilize the device effectively.

5.5 Set Up The Test Environment:

Once the aforementioned procedures have been completed, it is time to prepare the test environment and run the test. It is a must to secure the program & equipment needed to conduct the test, and prepare the testing environment.

5.6 Design and Execute The Test Cases:

This is an important stage that involves writing and running test scripts very frequently. Whereas making the test scripts, make beyond any doubt they are reusable, well-structured, and appropriately recorded. Execute the test scripts using the automation testing framework and tools once they have been created. A great test plan can avoid repeating errors and help in deliberate testing without sitting around idly and assets afterward within the testing stage. One of the leading tips is to compose the test case physically, taking after it by distinguishing the prerequisites of the test information. Posting the steps down brings more noteworthy clarity. Running this test at the slightest once physically can offer assistance to distinguish the objects and get the stream of the route. Typically a strong technique to find bugs sometimes recently a testing script can be written.

5.7 Analyze and Report The Test Results:

At long last, after the test execution preparation is completed, it is vital to analyze the test that comes about to check what went off-base, what ought to be settled or progressed, how effective the test was, etc. Sharing test results and discoveries with all interested parties is crucial.

5.8 Maintain Test Scripts:

The test scripts must be maintained as the last phase in order to use them for relapse tests or other program testing of a similar nature. Moreover, keep cleaning the out-of-date test cases and including the modern test cases in the store to guarantee compelling computerization and future reuse of the test scripts.

For an effective automation testing travel, building a successful test automation technique and receiving the most recent automation testing patterns is basic for today’s businesses to remain ahead within the market.

6. Conclusion:-

As seen in this blog, there are many different types of test automation frameworks that have their own pros and cons which makes it difficult to select the best one. But one thing the testing team should keep in mind is that just because the framework is popular doesn’t mean that it will fit your client’s organization. Therefore, while selecting a framework a test must always consider the current needs and future scope. Besides this, the requirements of the organization play a very important role in the selection process which might take time but comparing all the frameworks and then choosing the best-suited one is worth the time. The best way to evaluate the process is by gathering requirements, understanding the scope of the organization, doing smaller POC, and then choosing the framework. One can choose any of the above-listed frameworks if it fits the requirements.

Vishal Shah

Vishal Shah has an extensive understanding of multiple application development frameworks and holds an upper hand with newer trends in order to strive and thrive in the dynamic market. He has nurtured his managerial growth in both technical and business aspects and gives his expertise through his blog posts.

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